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雷暴闪电活动特征研究进展

郑栋 张文娟 姚雯 徐良韬 王飞

郑栋, 张文娟, 姚雯, 徐良韬, 王飞. 雷暴闪电活动特征研究进展[J]. 热带气象学报, 2021, 37(3): 289-297. doi: 10.16032/j.issn.1004-4965.2021.027
引用本文: 郑栋, 张文娟, 姚雯, 徐良韬, 王飞. 雷暴闪电活动特征研究进展[J]. 热带气象学报, 2021, 37(3): 289-297. doi: 10.16032/j.issn.1004-4965.2021.027
ZHENG Dong, ZHANG Wenjuan, YAO Wen, XU Liangtao, WANG Fei. RESEARCH PROGRESS OF LIGHTNING ACTIVITY IN THUNDERSTORMS[J]. Journal of Tropical Meteorology, 2021, 37(3): 289-297. doi: 10.16032/j.issn.1004-4965.2021.027
Citation: ZHENG Dong, ZHANG Wenjuan, YAO Wen, XU Liangtao, WANG Fei. RESEARCH PROGRESS OF LIGHTNING ACTIVITY IN THUNDERSTORMS[J]. Journal of Tropical Meteorology, 2021, 37(3): 289-297. doi: 10.16032/j.issn.1004-4965.2021.027

雷暴闪电活动特征研究进展

doi: 10.16032/j.issn.1004-4965.2021.027
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划课题 2017YFC1501503

中国气象科学研究院基本科研业务费重点项目 2020Z009

详细信息
    通讯作者:

    郑栋,男,河南省人,研究员,博士,主要从事大气电学研究。E-mail:zhengdong@cma.gov.cn

  • 中图分类号: P468.0

RESEARCH PROGRESS OF LIGHTNING ACTIVITY IN THUNDERSTORMS

  • 摘要: 从一般雷暴、灾害性雷暴和台风的闪电活动特征以及雷暴闪电尺度特征四个方面对相关研究进行梳理。一般雷暴通常具有正常极性电荷结构,云/地闪比例在3左右(中纬度地区),地闪中正地闪占比为10%左右,负地闪位置往往更集中于对流区。灾害性雷暴倾向具有活跃的云闪,低比例的地闪,易出现反极性电荷结构,正地闪比例偏高。闪电活动与灾害性天气现象之间存在关联性,部分雹暴过程具有两次闪电活跃阶段。台风中大部分闪电发生在外雨带,眼壁/外雨带闪电爆发很可能预示气旋强度的增强以及路径的改变。由闪电持续时间、通道空间扩展所表征的闪电尺度与雷暴对流强度相关。弱对流雷暴或雷暴的弱对流区域可能由水平扩展、垂直分层的电荷分布形态主导,闪电频次低,闪电空间尺度大;强对流雷暴或雷暴的强对流区域可能由交错分布的小电荷区主导,闪电频次高,闪电尺度小。

     

  • 图  1  2007年5月30(13时12分起)—31日(02时01分止)发生在湖北的一次雷暴过程中地闪(CG Flashes)、正地闪(PCG Flashes)和负地闪(NCG Flashes)以及正地闪占比随时间演变

    22:07 UTC后正地闪比例明显增大。引自Zheng等[3]图3

    图  2  2007年7月10日北京一次雹暴个例中基于2σ闪电跃变算法得到的闪电跃变信号

    闪电跃变超过阈值的时刻(图中红色柱,21:39)超前地面观测到降雹时刻(22:00BT)21 min。引自Yao等[17]图5

    图  3  综合郑栋等[14]、王晨曦等[13]和Xu等[15]的研究绘制的两种情形下雹暴闪电两次活跃阶段特征和形成机制的概念图

    图中第二行的雹暴对应Xu等[15]中分析的天津的雹暴个例,第一行的雹暴情形参考其它个例。

    图  4  台风“百合”(2001)近海和登陆期间眼壁闪电频次和台风强度变化图(a)和路径转向图(b)

    眼壁闪电爆发①②③发生在台风转向阶段,④发生在台风登陆前的快速增强阶段,⑤⑥发生在登陆后强度减弱阶段。引自Zhang等[30]图7

    图  5  2004年10月5日美国新墨西哥州一次超级单体过程三个连续体扫对应的闪电活动和雷暴结构

    a1、b1和c1的彩色底图表示平均闪电凸壳面积(表征闪电通道的水平扩展大小),黑色曲线对应底层雷达反射率廓线(由外到内分别对应10 dBZ、30 dBZ、50 dBZ和60 dBZ),绿色曲线表示闪电起始密度(由外到内的值为0.5 fl/km2、3 fl/km2和5 fl/km2),红色曲线对应闪电扩展密度(根据闪电通道是否穿越进行统计,由外到内的值为1.5 fl/km2、3 fl/km2、10 fl/km2和20 fl/km2),黑色直线显示了右侧雷达垂直剖面图的水平位置。a2、b2和c2展示了雷达垂直剖面与闪电初始位置的叠加。注意闪电凸壳面积的小值中心与闪电起始和闪电扩展面积的大值中心在水平空间上相对应,闪电起始高密度区位于强反射率柱上部。引自Zhang等[51]图7

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  • 收稿日期:  2020-11-24
  • 修回日期:  2021-05-08
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-09-27
  • 刊出日期:  2021-06-01

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