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海洋锋海表风速最小值及其成因

周琰 刘宣飞 李智

周琰, 刘宣飞, 李智. 海洋锋海表风速最小值及其成因[J]. 热带气象学报, 2017, 33(2): 167-176. doi: 10.16032/j.issn.1004-4965.2017.02.003
引用本文: 周琰, 刘宣飞, 李智. 海洋锋海表风速最小值及其成因[J]. 热带气象学报, 2017, 33(2): 167-176. doi: 10.16032/j.issn.1004-4965.2017.02.003
Yan ZHOU, Xuan-fei LIU, Zhi LI. SURFACE WIND MINIMUM ALONG THE SST FRONTS AND ITS CAUS[J]. Journal of Tropical Meteorology, 2017, 33(2): 167-176. doi: 10.16032/j.issn.1004-4965.2017.02.003
Citation: Yan ZHOU, Xuan-fei LIU, Zhi LI. SURFACE WIND MINIMUM ALONG THE SST FRONTS AND ITS CAUS[J]. Journal of Tropical Meteorology, 2017, 33(2): 167-176. doi: 10.16032/j.issn.1004-4965.2017.02.003

海洋锋海表风速最小值及其成因

doi: 10.16032/j.issn.1004-4965.2017.02.003
基金项目: 

江苏高校优势学科建设工程资助项目 PAPD

详细信息
    通讯作者:

    刘宣飞,男,江西省人,博士,教授,研究方向:季风与海气相互作用。E-mail:liuxf@nuist.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P425.4.1

SURFACE WIND MINIMUM ALONG THE SST FRONTS AND ITS CAUS

  • 摘要: 利用2000—2008年AVHRR、QuickSCAT等高分辨率卫星观测资料和CFSR再分析资料,分析了墨西哥湾流区、东海黑潮锋区、巴西-马尔维纳斯合流区和厄加勒斯回流区等全球主要海洋锋区的大气响应特征,发现在上述海洋锋区普遍存在海表矢量风速的最小值分布,并对这一现象的产生原因进行探讨。研究指出:夏季(6—8月)墨西哥湾流区、6月东海黑潮锋区附近有明显的矢量风速最小值分布,而巴西-马尔维纳斯合流区及厄加勒斯回流区海洋锋附近则终年存在矢量风速最小值。产生这一现象的条件是大尺度气压背景场梯度方向与海洋锋附近海表温度梯度方向接近一致,其物理过程为:海洋锋暖(冷)水区一侧上空对应有低(高)气压,由此产生的局地气压梯度与大尺度背景气压梯度方向接近相反,导致锋区附近叠加后的气压梯度最小,海表风速因此也最小。同时,摩擦作用使海表风偏向低压一侧,于是沿锋区走向(跨锋区走向)的风速分量差在暖水区一侧产生气旋性切变涡度(风速辐合),进而造成上升运动和强降水,而该分量差在冷水区一侧则产生相反的大气响应特征。

     

  • 图  1  2000—2008年AVHRR的SST(黑色等值线,间隔1 ℃)及其梯度(填色区,℃/(100 km))

    a. 6—8月GS;b. 6月ESK;c.年平均BMC;d.年平均ARC。虚线A1-B1、A2-B2、A3-B3、A4-B4表示跨锋区的直线。

    图  2  2000—2008年CFSR(上)和同期QuickSCAT(下)的海表面10 m风矢量(箭头)及高通滤波后的矢量风速(填色区,单位:m/s)以及同期AVHRR的SST(红色等值线)和梯度(蓝色等值线,间隔0.5 ℃/(100 km))

    a、e为6—8月GS;b、f为6月ESK;c、g为年平均BMC;d、h为年平均ARC。

    图  3  图 2,但为海表面10 m散度(彩色阴影,单位:10-5 s-1

    图  4  图 2a~2d,但为高通滤波后的降水(填色区,单位:mm/d)

    图  5  图 2,但为高通滤波后的海表面10 m涡度 (填色区,单位:10-5 s-1)

    图  6  高通滤波后的2000—2008年CFSR垂直速度(填色区,单位:10-2 Pa/s)沿直线A1-B1(a)、A2-B2(b)、A3-B3(c)、A4-B4(d)的垂直剖面

    图下方的黑曲线为AVHRR海温梯度,单位:℃/(100 km)。

    图  7  2000—2008年CFSR海平面气压(黑色等值线,单位:hPa) 及其高通滤波后的气压梯度(填色区,单位:hPa/(100 km))以及同期AVHRR的SST(红色等值线)和梯度(蓝色等值线,0.5 ℃/(100 km))

    a. 6—8月GS;b. 6月ESK;c.年平均BMC;d.年平均ARC。a、b中海平面气压的间隔是1 hPa,c、d中海平面气压的间隔是2 hPa。

    图  8  海温负拉普拉斯(上图填色区,单位:10-10 km-2)和1 000~850 hPa厚度负拉普拉斯(下图填色区,单位:10-10 m-1)以及同期AVHRR的SST(红色等值线)及其梯度(蓝色等值线,单位:0.5 ℃/(100 km))

    a、e为6—8月GS;b、f为6月ESK;c、g为年平均BMC;d、h为年平均ARC。

    图  9  北半球(左)和南半球(右)的海洋锋海表面风速最小值成因示意图

    蓝色粗实线SSTF代表海洋锋,黑色空心箭头-▽P为大尺度气压背景场梯度,紫色空心箭头-▽P '为附加气压梯度,黑色箭头$\overrightarrow V $为海洋锋冷、暖两侧的海表风,其沿锋区走向(跨锋区走向)的分量为u (v),红色箭头$\overrightarrow {{V_0}} $为海洋锋区的海表风,其沿锋区走向(跨锋区走向)的分量为u0v0),橙(蓝)色填色框有气旋性(反气旋性)切变涡度、风速辐合(辐散)、上升(下沉)运动和强(弱)降水。

    图  10  逐日样本合成的QuickSCAT海表面10 m风矢量(箭头)和高通滤波后的矢量风速(填色区,单位:m/s)以及同期AVHRR的SST(红色等值线)及其梯度(蓝色等值线,间隔0.5 ℃/(100 km))

    a. GS;b. ESK;c. BMC;d. ARC。

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  • 收稿日期:  2015-08-30
  • 修回日期:  2016-12-28
  • 刊出日期:  2017-04-01

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