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南海台风边界层湍流小波分析

涂朝勇 赵中阔 黎伟标 陈淑敏 陈逸伦 张奡祺

涂朝勇, 赵中阔, 黎伟标, 陈淑敏, 陈逸伦, 张奡祺. 南海台风边界层湍流小波分析[J]. 热带气象学报, 2022, 38(4): 554-568. doi: 10.16032/j.issn.1004-4965.2022.050
引用本文: 涂朝勇, 赵中阔, 黎伟标, 陈淑敏, 陈逸伦, 张奡祺. 南海台风边界层湍流小波分析[J]. 热带气象学报, 2022, 38(4): 554-568. doi: 10.16032/j.issn.1004-4965.2022.050
TU Chaoyong, ZHAO Zhongkuo, LI Weibiao, CHEN Shumin, CHEN Yilun, ZHANG Aoqi. WAVELET ANALYSIS OF TURBULENCE IN BOUNDARY LAYER OF TYPHOON IN SOUTH CHINA SEA[J]. Journal of Tropical Meteorology, 2022, 38(4): 554-568. doi: 10.16032/j.issn.1004-4965.2022.050
Citation: TU Chaoyong, ZHAO Zhongkuo, LI Weibiao, CHEN Shumin, CHEN Yilun, ZHANG Aoqi. WAVELET ANALYSIS OF TURBULENCE IN BOUNDARY LAYER OF TYPHOON IN SOUTH CHINA SEA[J]. Journal of Tropical Meteorology, 2022, 38(4): 554-568. doi: 10.16032/j.issn.1004-4965.2022.050

南海台风边界层湍流小波分析

doi: 10.16032/j.issn.1004-4965.2022.050
基金项目: 

广东省重点领域研发计划项目 2019B111101002

国家自然科学基金项目 41875021

详细信息
    通讯作者:

    赵中阔,男,河南省人,研究员,主要从事海-气中小尺度耦合过程研究。E-mail:zhaozk@gd121.cn

  • 中图分类号: P433

WAVELET ANALYSIS OF TURBULENCE IN BOUNDARY LAYER OF TYPHOON IN SOUTH CHINA SEA

  • 摘要: 利用小波变换(WT)对香港天文台飞机观测台风“妮妲”(1604)资料进行分析,研究在不稳定、不均匀的台风边界层中湍流涡旋的垂直传输作用。在0.1~5 Hz惯性子区内横风和顺风分量功率谱密度能较好符合-5/3幂律。小波分析显示:横风的小波功率谱峰值集中在1 km之下,顺风分量的小波功率谱峰值集中在1~6 km之间;眼区动量通量的主要贡献尺度为2.3 km,眼区外主要贡献尺度在1~2 km,中低层为较小尺度(< 1.0 km);湍流功能(TKE)的生成尺度主要集中在4 km之下。这项研究定量描述了南海北部台风边界层各个区域湍流结构的差异特征,讨论了对台风边界层通量参数化的可能影响。

     

  • 图  1  07:30—07:59(a)和08:00—08:30(b)台风路径、探测路径和台风降水分布图

    细实线为台风路径;粗实线为飞机探测路径;填色为GPM 0.5 h降水,显示5 mm/h及以上降水。

    图  2  飞机探测三维风速、高度图和分区示意图

    a. U;b. V;c. W;d. 观测高度;e. 水平合成风;f. 三维合成风。
    Ⅰ:北侧弱眼墙区(07:30—07:50);Ⅱ:眼区(07:50—08:10);Ⅲ:南侧深对流区(08:10—08:30);Ⅳ:西侧弱眼墙区(08:30—08:55)。

    图  3  风随高度变化

    a. 探测资料数量统计;b. U随高度变化;c. V随高度变化;d. W随高度变化;e. 水平合成风随高度变化;f. 三维合成风随高度变化。蓝色实线为高度平均风速,垂直分辨率为0.5 m;红色实线为九点滑动平均值。

    图  4  2016年8月1日台风“妮妲”横风分量功率谱密度图

    黑色虚线是指数为-5/3的理想幂函数,棕色线为横风分量功率谱密度20点平滑;a. Ⅰ区;b. Ⅱ区;c. Ⅲ区;d. Ⅳ区。

    图  5  2016年8月1日台风“妮妲”顺风分量功率谱密度图

    黑色虚线是指数为-5/3的理想幂函数,棕色线为顺风分量功率谱密度20点平滑;a. Ⅰ区;b. Ⅱ区;c. Ⅲ区;d. Ⅳ区。

    图  6  观测结果得到的V风分量

    a. Ⅰ区;b. Ⅱ区;c. Ⅲ区;d. Ⅳ区;蓝色实线obs为观测得到;棕色虚线reconstructed为WT系数重建的时间序列。

    图  7  观测结果得到的顺风分量

    a. Ⅰ区;b. Ⅱ区;c. Ⅲ区;d. Ⅳ区;蓝色实线obs为观测得到;棕色虚线reconstructed为WT系数重建的时间序列。

    图  8  横风分量和顺风分量时间平均NWPS

    a. Ⅰ区横风;b. Ⅱ区横风;c. Ⅲ区横风;d. Ⅳ区横风;e. Ⅰ区顺风;f.Ⅱ区顺风;g. Ⅲ区顺风;h. Ⅳ区顺风;10 s时间间隔平均。

    图  9  横风分量和顺风分量峰值贡献

    a. 最大贡献尺度;b. 最大贡献尺度贡献率;c. 次大贡献尺度;d. 次大贡献尺度贡献率;e. 最大尺度;f. 最大尺度贡献率。

    图  10  动量通量τ小波分析

    (填色为小波功率谱,以横风的平均速度*时间周期=尺度,Ⅰ~Ⅳ区横风平均速度分别为:3.27、3.08、2.34、3.90 m/s,与FOSTER[47]计算的横向滚动速度2.2 m/s的量级相当,对Ⅳ区选取统一时间长度1 200 s)

    图  11  TKE小波分析

    (填色为小波功率谱;以横风的平均速度*时间周期=尺度,Ⅰ~Ⅳ区横风平均风速分别为:3.27、3.08、2.34、3.90 m/s,对Ⅳ区选取统一时间长度1 200 s)

    表  1  分区湍流平稳性检测表

    湍流平稳性
    U'W' 0.398 5 0.670 2 0.351 4 3.559 2
    U'W'等级 3 4 3 7
    V'W' 0.108 9 0.258 2 0.491 5 1.512 3
    V'W'等级 1 2 3 6
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-09-10
  • 修回日期:  2021-12-09
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-10-25
  • 刊出日期:  2022-08-20

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